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DESCRIPTIONA kidney transplant involves the surgical removal of a kidney from cadaver, living-related, or living-unrelated donor and transplantation into the recipient.
Based on data from the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, in 2013 about 40% of kidney transplants in the U.S. (5734/13,280) were performed using organs from living donors. As of April 2014, the 5-year survival rate for kidney transplants performed between 1997 and 2000 was 66.6% for organs from deceased donors and 79.8% for organs from living donors.
Combined kidney pancreas transplant and management of acute rejection of kidney transplant using either intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis are discussed in separate policies.
Related policies -
POLICYNo benefits will be provided for a covered transplant procedure unless the Member receives prior authorization through case management from Blue Cross & Blue Shield of Mississippi.
Kidney transplants are considered medically necessary for carefully selected candidates including, but not limited to, any one of the conditions (and ICD-9 diagnosis codes listed in the "Code Reference" section) which cause end-stage renal disease.
Kidney transplantation is not medically necessary in patients with the following absolute contraindications:
HIV positivity is not an absolute contraindication to transplant. Each individual transplant center will determine patient selection criteria for HIV positive patients. (See Policy Guidelines).
Kidney retransplant after a failed primary kidney transplant may be considered medically necessary in patients who meet criteria for kidney transplantation.
Kidney transplant is considered investigational in all other situations.
POLICY GUIDELINESCandidates for a kidney transplant need documentation of a progressive or terminal end-stage renal disease who otherwise have no immediate life threatening conditions, psychological impairments, and have a good support system.
Relative contraindications to kidney transplantation:
HIV-positive patients who meet the following criteria, as stated in the 2001 guidelines of the American Society of Transplantation, could be considered candidates for kidney transplantation:
Indications for renal transplant include a creatinine level of greater than 8 mg/dL, or greater than 6 mg/dL in symptomatic diabetic patients. However, consideration for listing for renal transplant may start well before the creatinine level reaches this point, based on the anticipated time that a patient may spend on the waiting list.
The coverage guidelines outlined in the Medical Policy Manual should not be used in lieu of the Member's specific benefit plan language.
POLICY HISTORY8/1998: Approved by Medical Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC)
5/1/2002: Type of Service and Place of Service deleted
7/21/2005: Reviewed by MPAC; "HIV positivity is not an absolute contraindication to transplant. Each individual transplant center will determine patient selection criteria for HIV positive patients."
10/17/2005: Code Reference table updated: CPT codes 50323, 50325, 50327, 50328, 50329, 50380 added; ICD-9 procedure codes 55.52, 55.53, 55.54, 55.61, 55.69, 00.91, 00.92, 00.93 added; diagnosis codes 250.40, 250.42, 274.11, 403.01, 403.11, 403.91, 581.81, 584.7, 753.3 added, 275.49 5th digit added, V42.0 deleted, other codes were moved and placed in numerical order.
10/25/2005: Code Reference Table updated: CPT codes revised: 50300, 50320, 50340, 50360, 50365. ICD-9 Diagnosis codes revised: 189.0, 203.00, 203.01, 250.40-250.43, 270.0, 271.8, 272.7, 274.10, 274.11, 274.19, 275.49, 277.3, 287.0, 446.0, 453.3, 582.1, 583.6, 583.89, 583.9, 584.5, 590.00-590.01, 593.81, 599.6, 710.0, 753.0, 753.12, 753.13, 753.14, 753.16, 866.00-866.03, 866.10, 866.11, 866.12, 866.13, 963.8, 996.81
11/8/2005: Code Reference section updated, 5th digit added to ICD9 diagnosis codes 599.60, 599.69; 4th digit added to codes 585.1-585.9, description revised
03/13/2006: Coding updated. CPT4 2006 revisions added to policy.
9/12/2006: Coding updated. ICD9 2006 revisions added to policy.
1/14/2008: Policy reviewed, no changes
9/10/2008: Annual ICD-9 updates effective 10-1-2008 applied
12/19/2008: Policy reviewed, prior authorization language removed
4/23/2009: Policy reviewed, no changes
9/29/2009: Code reference section updated. Description revised for ICD-9 codes 584.5 and 584.7.
08/11/2011: Policy statement updated to add the following absolute contraindications to kidney transplantation: known current malignancy, including metastatic cancer; recent malignancy with a high incidence of recurrence; untreated systemic infection making immunosuppression unsafe, including chronic infection; or other irreversible end-stage disease not attributed to kidney disease. Updated policy guidelines regarding patient selection criteria. Also added statement regarding prior authorization requirements to the policy statement. Deleted outdated references from the Sources section.
07/17/2012: Policy reviewed; no changes.
10/23/2013: Added policy statement to indicate that kidney retransplant after a failed primary kidney transplant may be considered medically necessary.
08/08/2014: Policy reviewed; description revised. Medically necessary policy statement on kidney retransplant after a failed primary kidney transplant updated to add "in patients who meet criteria for kidney transplantation." Added the following policy statement: Kidney transplant is considered investigational in all other situations.
SOURCE(S)Blue Cross & Blue Shield Association policy # 7.03.01
CODE REFERENCEThis may not be a comprehensive list of procedure codes applicable to this policy.
The code(s) listed below are ONLY medically necessary if the procedure is performed according to the "Policy" section of this document.