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Leuprolide acetate (Lupron®), a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, is a synthetic analog of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) possessing greater potency than the natural hormone. Initially, leuprolide acetate (Lupron®) increases circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leading to a transient increase in gonadal steroids (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in males; estrone and estradiol in premenopausal females.) However, continuous daily administration results in decreased LH and FSH in all patients. In males, testosterone levels decrease to castrate levels, and in premenopausal females, estrogens are reduced to postmenopausal levels. These decreases occur within 2 to 4 weeks after initiation of therapy.
FDA approved indications are as follows:
Leuprolide (Lupron®) is considered medically necessary for the following disease states:
Leuprolide (Lupron®) is considered not medically necessary for ovarian stimulation.
The coverage guidelines outlined in the Medical Policy Manual should not be used in lieu of the Member's specific benefit plan language.
Medically Necessary is defined as those services, treatments, procedures, equipment, drugs, devices, items or supplies furnished by a covered Provider that are required to identify or treat a Member's illness, injury or Nervous/Mental Conditions, and which Company determines are covered under this Benefit Plan based on the criteria as follows in A through D:
A. consistent with the symptoms or diagnosis and treatment of the Member's condition, illness, or injury; and
B. appropriate with regard to standards of good medical practice; and
C. not solely for the convenience of the Member, his or her Provider; and
D. the most appropriate supply or level of care which can safely be provided to Member. When applied to the care of an Inpatient, it further means that services for the Member's medical symptoms or conditions require that the services cannot be safely provided to the Member as an Outpatient.
For the definition of Medically Necessary, “standards of good medical practice” means standards that are based on credible scientific evidence published in peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, and physician specialty society recommendations, and the views of medical practitioners practicing in relevant clinical areas and any other relevant factors. BCBSMS makes no payment for services, treatments, procedures, equipment, drugs, devices, items or supplies which are not documented to be Medically Necessary. The fact that a Physician or other Provider has prescribed, ordered, recommended, or approved a service or supply does not in itself, make it Medically Necessary.
Investigative is defined as the use of any treatment procedure, facility, equipment, drug, device, or supply not yet recognized as a generally accepted standard of good medical practice for the treatment of the condition being treated and; therefore, is not considered medically necessary. For the definition of Investigative, “generally accepted standards of medical practice” means standards that are based on credible scientific evidence published in peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, and physician specialty society recommendations, and the views of medical practitioners practicing in relevant clinical areas and any other relevant factors. In order for equipment, devices, drugs or supplies [i.e, technologies], to be considered not investigative, the technology must have final approval from the appropriate governmental bodies, and scientific evidence must permit conclusions concerning the effect of the technology on health outcomes, and the technology must improve the net health outcome, and the technology must be as beneficial as any established alternative and the improvement must be attainable outside the testing/investigational setting.
5/1999: Approval by Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committee (P & T)
11/1999: Revisions approved by P & T
1/17/2001: Added new HCPCS J9219 effective 1-01-2001
4/9/2001: Breast and Endometrial cancer added as covered indications, ICD-9 diagnosis code 174.0-174.9, 175.0-175.9, 182.0 added covered codes
1/30/2002: Prior authorization deleted
2/14/2002: Investigational definition added
5/1/2002: Type of Service and Place of Service deleted
11/13/2002: ICD-9 diagnosis codes moved to Code Reference section
9/10/2004: Code Reference section updated, ICD-9 diagnosis code range 174.0-174.9, 218.0-218.9, 617.0-617.9 listed separately, ICD-9 diagnosis code 173.5, 198.2, 198.81, 198.82, 232.5, 233.0, 233.2 added covered codes, ICD-9 diagnosis code 259.0 deleted covered codes, HCPCS S9560 added covered codes, non-covered codes table deleted, ICD-9 diagnosis code 256.4, 183.0, 198.6, 233.3 deleted non-covered codes, Catamenial pneumothorax, hypersexuality, ovarian stimulation deleted non-covered table
9/16/2005: Code Reference section updated, CPT code 90782 deleted, ICD-9 diagnosis code 233.4 added
10/29/2006: Dosing and off-label information removed
11/2/2006: Code Reference updated. ICD-9 diagnosis codes 173.5, 174-174.6, 174.8, 174.9, 175.0-175.9, 182.0, 198.2, 198.81, 232.5, 233.0 deleted from policy
7/12/2007: Code Reference updated. ICD-9 diagnosis codes 173.5, 174-174.6, 174.8, 174.9, 175.0-175.9, 182.0, 198.2, 198.81, 232.5, 233.0 added to policy. Breast and endometrial cancer added to policy statement as medically necessary. Ovarian stimulation (256.1) added to policy statement as not medically necessary.
8/25/2008: Added ICD-9 diagnosis code range 256.0 - 256.9 as not medically necessary for ovarian stimulation
04/01/2014: Policy title changed from "Leuprolide (Lupron®)" to "Leuprolide acetate (Lupron®)." Policy description updated to add "acetate" to Leuprolide (Lupron®). Policy statement intent unchanged.
09/01/2015: Code Reference section updated for ICD-10. Extended ICD-9 diagnosis code 173.5 to the fifth digit as 173.50, 173.51, 173.52, and 173.59.
05/27/2016: Policy number added. Policy Guidelines updated to add medically necessary and investigative definitions.
American Hospital Formulary Services 1998
Fact and Comparisons October, 1999
Micromedex, 1998, 2006
Lupron® Prescribing Information
This may not be a comprehensive list of procedure codes applicable to this policy.
The code(s) listed below are ONLY medically necessary if the procedure is performed according to the "Policy" section of this document.