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Mutations in the DMD gene, which encodes the protein dystrophin, may result in a spectrum of X-linked muscle diseases, including the progressive diseases Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and dilated cardiomyopathy. Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis of a dystrophinopathy and distinguish the less and more severe forms, as well as identify female carriers at risk.
The dystrophinopathies include a spectrum of muscle diseases The mild end of the spectrum includes asymptomatic increases in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase and clinical symptoms such as muscle cramps with myoglobinuria and/or isolated quadriceps myopathy. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. When skeletal muscle is primarily affected, they are classified as Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy; when the heart is primarily affected, the disease is classified as DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (left ventricular dilation and heart failure).
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Becker Muscular Dystrophy
The dystrophinopathies are X-linked recessive and penetrance is complete in males. The gene that codes for dystrophin is the largest known human gene. A molecular confirmation of DMD and BMD is achieved by confirming the presence of a pathogenic variant in this gene by a number of available assays. The large size of the dystrophin gene results in a complex mutational spectrum with over 5,000 different reported mutations, as well as a high spontaneous mutation rate.
New therapeutic trials require accurate diagnoses of these disorders, especially when the therapy is targeted at specific mutations. Several therapies are currently in clinical trials. Two of the more promising are anti-sense oligonucleotide-induced exon-skipping and gene repair and replacement with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector. Exon-skipping is a molecular therapy aimed at skipping the transcription of a targeted exon to restore a correct reading frame using antisense oligonucleotides. The result is a DMD protein without the mutated exon and a normal, non-shifted reading frame. Exon-skipping might restore DMD protein function so that the treated patient’s phenotypic expression more closely resembles BMD. Gene transfer using AAV vector therapy involves the transfer of a functional DMD gene to the patient using this nonpathogenic and low immune response vector.
Clinical laboratories may develop and validate tests in-house and market them as a laboratory service; laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) must meet the general regulatory standards of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA). Laboratories that offer LDTs must be licensed by CLIA for high-complexity testing. To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has chosen not to require any regulatory review of this test.
Genetic testing for DMD gene mutations may be considered medically necessary under the following conditions:
Genetic testing for DMD gene mutations is considered investigational in all other situations.
Heterozygous females are at increased risk for cardiomyopathy and need routine cardiac surveillance and treatment.
At-risk females are defined as first- and second-degree female relatives and include the proband’s mother, female siblings of the proband, female offspring of the proband, the proband’s maternal grandmother, maternal aunts, and their offspring.
Genetic counseling is primarily aimed at patients who are at risk for inherited disorders, and experts recommend formal genetic counseling in most cases when genetic testing for an inherited condition is considered. The interpretation of the results of genetic tests and the understanding of risk factors can be very difficult and complex. Therefore, genetic counseling will assist individuals in understanding the possible benefits and harms of genetic testing, including the possible impact of the information on the individual’s family. Genetic counseling may alter the utilization of genetic testing substantially and may reduce inappropriate testing. Genetic counseling should be performed by an individual with experience and expertise in genetic medicine and genetic testing methods.
Medically Necessary is defined as those services, treatments, procedures, equipment, drugs, devices, items or supplies furnished by a covered Provider that are required to identify or treat a Member's illness, injury or Nervous/Mental Conditions, and which Company determines are covered under this Benefit Plan based on the criteria as follows in A through D:
A. consistent with the symptoms or diagnosis and treatment of the Member's condition, illness, or injury; and
B. appropriate with regard to standards of good medical practice; and
C. not solely for the convenience of the Member, his or her Provider; and
D. the most appropriate supply or level of care which can safely be provided to Member. When applied to the care of an Inpatient, it further means that services for the Member's medical symptoms or conditions require that the services cannot be safely provided to the Member as an Outpatient.
For the definition of Medically Necessary, “standards of good medical practice” means standards that are based on credible scientific evidence published in peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, and physician specialty society recommendations, and the views of medical practitioners practicing in relevant clinical areas and any other relevant factors. BCBSMS makes no payment for services, treatments, procedures, equipment, drugs, devices, items or supplies which are not documented to be Medically Necessary. The fact that a Physician or other Provider has prescribed, ordered, recommended, or approved a service or supply does not in itself, make it Medically Necessary.
Investigative is defined as the use of any treatment procedure, facility, equipment, drug, device, or supply not yet recognized as a generally accepted standard of good medical practice for the treatment of the condition being treated and; therefore, is not considered medically necessary. For the definition of Investigative, “generally accepted standards of medical practice” means standards that are based on credible scientific evidence published in peer-reviewed medical literature generally recognized by the relevant medical community, and physician specialty society recommendations, and the views of medical practitioners practicing in relevant clinical areas and any other relevant factors. In order for equipment, devices, drugs or supplies [i.e, technologies], to be considered not investigative, the technology must have final approval from the appropriate governmental bodies, and scientific evidence must permit conclusions concerning the effect of the technology on health outcomes, and the technology must improve the net health outcome, and the technology must be as beneficial as any established alternative and the improvement must be attainable outside the testing/investigational setting.
The coverage guidelines outlined in the Medical Policy Manual should not be used in lieu of the Member's specific benefit plan language.
07/18/2013: New policy added. Approved by Medical Policy Advisory Committee.
05/01/2014: Policy reviewed; no changes.
08/18/2015: Medical policy revised to add ICD-10 codes.
09/16/2015: Policy reviewed. Added the following policy statement: Genetic testing for DMD gene mutations is considered investigational in all other situations. Policy Guidelines updated to add medically necessary and investigative definitions.
04/19/2016: Policy description updated regarding laboratory-developed tests. Policy statements unchanged. Policy guidelines updated to add genetic counseling information.
06/07/2016: Policy number added.
Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Policy # 2.04.86
This may not be a comprehensive list of procedure codes applicable to this policy.
The code(s) listed below are ONLY medically necessary if the procedure is performed according to the "Policy" section of this document.