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DESCRIPTIONThe end-diastolic pneumatic compression boot includes the following components: a heart monitor to detect the QRS complex of the EKG and to appropriately time boot compressions in the end portion of the heart cycle; a rapid action valve assembly capable of both pressurizing and exhausting the boots; rigid, adjustable long boots to enclose the leg from groin to toes; and double-walled plastic bags to enclose the treated portion of the leg and to contain the compressed air.
Poor lower extremity circulation can be associated with compromised arterial flow, impaired venous return or both. When oxygen demand exceeds the supply to the lower extremity, such as during physical activity, claudication pain can result. Small amounts of oxygen deprivation over a chronic period will lead to skin breakdown and poor healing capacity. Peripheral artery disease, typically caused be arteriosclerosis, worsens with age, smoking, high lipids and diabetes. Venous stasis and lymphedema compress small arterioles and shunt blood from these areas.
Therapeutic approaches to peripheral artery disease include risk factor modification, control of diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia, aspirin and other antiplatelet therapies, and progressive exercise. Percutaneous or open surgical procedures can reestablish arterial flow. Approaches to venous stasis include compression and elevation.
End diastolic pneumatic compression has been investigated in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, venous stasis and lymphedema. Timed, sequential inflation during the end diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle is applied to a boot enclosing the foot or ankle, or extending from the toes to the groin, and is designed both to allow maximal arterial flow into the leg and to expel venous blood and lymphatic fluid.
In January 1980, device “The Circulator Boot™” (Circulator Boot Corporation, Malvern, PA) was cleared for marketing by the FDA through the 510(k) process. The FDA determined that this device was substantially equivalent to existing devices for treatment of leg vascular diseases and congestive heart failure. In May 1984, the FDA approved a modification to limit the treatment area to the lower leg: The Miniboot. In August 1997, the FDA approved a computerized delay timing based on electrocardiogram.
In May 2009, “The Circulator Boot™” was cleared for marketing by the FDA through the 510(k) process as follows: “The Circulator Boot System alone - or in combination with other drug or device therapies - may be prescribed by the physician to treat:
Poor arterial flow in extremities associated with:
Diabetes complicated by the above or other conditions possible related to arterial insufficiency including:
Venous disease (once risk of emboli minimized)
Athletic injuries: “Charlie horses”, pulled muscles, and edematous muscles
POLICYEnd diastolic pneumatic compression boots are considered investigational as a treatment of peripheral vascular disease or lymphedema and its associated complications, including but not limited to ischemic lesions, claudication pain, necrotizing cellulitis, venous stasis ulcers, stasis dermatitis, chronic lymphedema, or thrombophlebitis.
POLICY EXCEPTIONSFederal Employee Program (FEP) may dictate that all FDA-approved devices, drugs or biologics may not be considered investigational and thus these devices may be assessed only on the basis of their medical necessity.
POLICY GUIDELINESThe coverage guidelines outlined in the Medical Policy Manual should not be used in lieu of the Member's specific benefit plan language.
There are no specific CPT codes for this technology, but a series of CPT codes may be used to describe the individual components of the overall therapy, similar to those used for external counterpulsation therapy for chronic refractory angina or congestive heart failure.
POLICY HISTORY7/27/2006: Approved by Medical Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC)
08/03/2011: Policy description updated. Policy statement unchanged. FEP verbiage added to the Policy Exception section.
02/24/2012: Policy reviewed; no changes.
04/04/2013: Policy reviewed; no changes.
03/11/2014: Policy reviewed; no changes.
SOURCE(S)Blue Cross Blue Shield Association policy # 2.02.17
CODE REFERENCEThis may not be a comprehensive list of procedure codes applicable to this policy.